In the south, the Swedish battle fleet remained anchored within the Finnish archipelago, blocking some of the deeper coastal sea routes from Hangö towards Åbo. In the north, the situation was more complicated. With the Royal Navy supporting the Swedish battle fleet there was little the Russian battle fleet could accomplish. On 9 April, fearing for the security of its shipments of iron ore fron Sweden thru the northern Norwegian port of Narvik, Germany invades Denmark & Norway. There is much to learn from that experience, but it does not suggest that Russia will start a war against Sweden or Finland, as Saakashvili contends, in order to boost Putin’s popularity. On a larger scale both Finland and Sweden also share a special relationship with all the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland and Norway). France invaded the Ruhr when the Germans did not pay reparations; the … New elements of the special relationship are the official minority language status that Finnish language received in Sweden as well as the business integration between the two countries. The common people of Finland suffered during this period because of drafts, high taxes, and abuse by military personnel. Finland was part of Sweden for almost 700 years from around 1150 until the Finnish War of 1809 that saw Finland becoming an autonomous part of the Russian Empire as the Grand Duchy of Finland. Other notable effects were the Swedish parliament's adoption of a new constitution and the establishment of the House of Bernadotte, the new Swedish royal house, in 1818. When Finland gained its independence, the Ålanders began to hope for reunion with Sweden… Although he reiterated his demand on November 16, 1807, it took two months before the king responded that it was impossible to honor the previous arrangements as long as the French were in control of the major Baltic ports. Most of the laws from the time of the Swedish rule remained in force. This reduced his unit to 4,000 troops, which proved insufficient to pacify the hostile country. In support of Finland’s cause, Sweden released over 8,000 … Even the strongest of the Swedish fortresses, Sveaborg, still had several of its planned fortifications missing, most notably all the land side fortifications designed to protect against a besieging enemy.  Since then, Antti Rinne also made his first official visit to Estonia but Juha Sipilä and Sanna Marin both made their first official visit to Sweden. , Russia had gathered a wealth of information from Finland using spies and other sources. Starting from 1899, Russia tightened its grip on the Grand Duchy of Finland. King Gustav Adolf did this after securing an alliance with Britain on 8 February 1808. The Russians gained the main body of the Swedish archipelago fleet intact as well as large stores of supplies and munitions. Odds were very much against the Swedes as the Russians had nearly one hundred coastal ships in the Finnish archipelago, against which Sweden could deploy only 7 galleys and 30 gun sloops. Михайловский-Данилевский А. И., Описание финляндской войны в 1808-1809. Захаров Г., Русско-шведская война 1808-1809, М., 1940. , In 2020 and 2021 COVID19 hit Europe, Sweden and Finland chose differing national responses. The fortress surrendered on 6 May 1808 after prolonged negotiations with the Russians as the commanding officer Carl Olof Cronstedt and his council believed that resistance was futile. Finland entered a personal union with the Russian Empire as a grand duchy with extensive autonomy. This took place three months after the German invasion of Poland that triggered the start of World War II in Europe. ... Russia’s assertive behavior is driving Sweden and Finland — two countries that have never been part of NATO — closer to the alliance. During the 11th and 12th centuries, Sweden gradually became a unified Christian kingdom. It gained complete independence in 1917. However, the Swedish fleet dropped its blockade on 22 August, allowing the Russian coastal units to unite. Six days later, the czar arrived in Åbo and, on learning about the truce, not only revoked Knorring's signature but named Barclay de Tolly as the new Commander-in-Chief. Votes: 7,621. Otherwise the degree of urbanization was very low in medieval Finland. Cookies on FT Sites. Due to bad weather and poor visibility the fleet under Admiral Rudolph Cederström chose to stay relatively far from the coast. Since Finland gained its full independence from Russia in 1917, the two countries have been close partners enjoying a special relationship. Total British control of the Gulf of Finland was a large obstacle to the Russian supply network and required sizable garrisons to be posted all along the Finnish coast. During his rule, the Swedish church was reformed. During the 1580s, this resulted in a bloody guerrilla warfare between the Finnish settlers and Karelians in some regions, especially in Ostrobothnia. The allied fleet moved on 25 August 1808 to engage the Russian fleet, which turned and attempted to reach the relative safety of Baltiyskiy Port. During the 1380s, a civil war in the Scandinavian part of Sweden brought unrest to Finland as well. The Swedish volunteer air force unit F 19 was set up in Finland, with 12 fighter aircraft and 4 bombers from the Swedish Airforce. This took place three months after the German invasion of Poland that triggered the start of World War II in Europe. The Finnish War (1808-1809), known in Sweden as “the greatest national catastrophe in the long history of the Swedish state”, resulted in the country losing Finland to the Russian Empire. Although in June 2014, then newly elected Finnish Prime Minister Alexander Stubb broke with tradition and used his first official visit abroad to visit Estonia. After starting the siege on 21 February, the Russians issued a surrender demand for the fort, but this was refused by the Swedes. During the Russian rule, Finland became a special region developed by order of the Emperor. , In 2014, the two countries announced a special defense partnership between them. Director: Pekka Parikka | Stars: Taneli Mäkelä, Vesa Vierikko, Timo Torikka, Heikki Paavilainen. More Royal Navy ships (including HMS Victory, Mars, Goliath, and Africa) arrived to oversee a blockade of the Russian fleet at Baltiyskiy Port which continued until the sea started to freeze. The Russians used the services of General Georg Magnus Sprengtporten when forming their plans. The motif on the coin is the passage of Finland from Sweden to Russia. The presence of the British naval units kept the Russian battlefleet strictly confined to Kronstadt, and after the British constructed artillery batteries to the Porkkala cape they cut off the coastal sea route from Russian ships. It was not until 26 September that Prince Dolgorukov (Alekseyev's replacement) managed to join his forces with Tuchkov's, inducing Sandels to retreat. However, owing to bad weather, only a portion of the troops that had been intended to participate in the landing actually reached the Finnish coast, and this resulted in another withdrawal on 28 September.. whow would win in a war between Finland, Sweden, Norway? Yet French and British naval forces had already been using the Swedish island of Gotland as a base of operations against Russia in the Baltic Sea. The Swedish concession to German demands during and after the German invasion of Norway in April–June 1940 is often … A video of how i think a war between Sweden and Finland would start and play out.Songs: "Our Story Begins" and "Hitman" by Kevin Macleod According to two 2015 studies by political scientists Jan Teorell and Bo Rothstein, Sweden's loss in the Finnish War led to reforms of the Swedish bureaucracy. On the first day of the war they had captured the town of Lovisa and besieged the Swedish sea fortress of Svartholm. After the war, Sweden had a clear headstart in the post-war economical development, much due to its neutrality in the war. There is evidence of possible Viking settlements on the Finnish mainland. On Sept. 17, 1809, Sweden lived through one of the darkest days in its history. , The Russians had advanced considerably but they had also gained the long and vulnerable coastline with it. During the Cold War, Finland was a border state between the Soviet Union and the West. Birger built a fortress in Tavastia and some fortifications along the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland, where Swedish settlement on a mass scale began. On 17 September, the Swedes landed again, this time at Lokalax (Finnish: Lokalahti), while the coastal fleet covering the landing managed to keep the Russians away in the Battle of Palva Sund on 18 September. The matter of German troop transfer through Finland and Sweden during World War II was one of the more controversial aspects of modern Nordic history beside Finland's co-belligerence with Nazi Germany in the Continuation War, and the export of Swedish iron ore during World War II. But nobody has asked the real question that matters. Starting from 1899, Russia tightened its grip on the Grand Duchy of Finland. The surprised Russians garrisoned at Åbo reacted quickly, however, and deployed over 3,000 men to stop the landing force. Sweden provided massive military assistance to Finland during World War II.  Both countries are also united by the fact that neither Finland or Sweden have decided to join NATO, whereas all the other Nordic Countries as well as the Baltic States are NATO members. The Emperor of Russia, Alexander I gave Finland the status of a Grand Duchy. The Hats attempted to make Sweden a great economic power, but… Read More; 1788–1790. The king had thought it impossible to defend Finland should the enemy attack during the winter and chose largely to ignore the repeated warnings of the Russian threat he received in early 1808. Between 1523 and Sweden's final war with Russia in 1809, a state of war had existed between these two countries for 67 out of those 292 years. While after the end of the Cold War Sweden cutback on it's preparedness and decided to used those funds for other purposes. Seventy percent of the population was engaged in agriculture and forestry, and half of the value of production came from these primary industries in 1900. This took place three months after the German invasion of Poland that triggered the start of World War IIin Europe. The Vikings were known to Finns due to both their participation in commerce and their plundering. During the 12th and 13th centuries, great numbers of Swedish settlers moved to the southern and north-western coasts of Finland, including the Åland Islands and the archipelago between Åbo and the Åland Islands. During World War I, Sweden declared neutrality. Small boat actions took place during the night time of 17–18 July which became known as the skirmish at Lövö (Finnish: Lövön kahakka). An important part of the 16th-century history of Finland was growth of the area settled by the farming population. The fortress surrendered to the Russians on 18 March after a siege that had lasted roughly a month, with just one man having been wounded in action. Following the policies of the Reformation, in 1551 Mikael Agricola, bishop of Åbo, published his translation of the New Testament into the Finnish language. Later medieval legends describe Swedish attempts to conquer and 'Christianize' Finland by the First Swedish Crusade sometime in the mid-1150s. For example, Helsinki city centre was built during Russian rule. Ironically, the War of Finland had very little to do with any problems that Sweden had with Russia when it first began, but was more to do with the European struggle for political power, especially the struggle between Britain and its historical enemy, France, now led by the Emperor Napoleon. Before the end of March 1808 even Vasa was taken. Swedish language has an official status in Finland whilst Finns form the largest ethnic minority in Sweden, estimated to be about 675,000.. However, the British still had acce… Capture of the main body of the Swedish archipelago fleet had resulted in a real advantage to the Russians since it allowed them to gain superiority in the narrow waters of the Finnish archipelago where large ships of the line could not operate. Instead of facing the Russians at Tavastehus he ordered the army to withdraw. The demand was repeated on 2 March but without success. But the war was not yet over, the operations would continue in northern Sweden for some time, and Finnish soldiers fought alongside their Swedish comrades for the last time in the history of the Swedish-Finnish union. Some iron works were founded in the southwestern part of the country in order to process Swedish iron ore as early as in … , It is an old tradition for the first official foreign visit of a new prime minister from either country to visit the other. The League of Nations solved the dispute by not changing the border, but requiring the Swedish language of Åland to be kept. Invasion of the Ruhr, 1923. I'm tired of all these "Russia vs USA" or "china vs Russia" topics. The cohesion of Finland was strengthened by a view of Sweden as a former enemy. Since Finland gained its full independence from Russia in 1917, the two countries have been close partners enjoying a special relationship. 1, СПБ, 1889. In Savolax, Russians also advanced rapidly and took Kuopio on 16 March. Firstly, let us all keep in mind that Sweden and Finland were united into one country at the time of this war. The Russians, however, were able to send reinforcements to the area which were, in addition to being numerically superior, both far better trained and equipped than the peasants and militia the Swedes had raised. As a result of the war, the eastern third of Sweden was established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire. Also the Swedish southern army of Finland, consisting of roughly 4,000 men under Major General von Vegesack, was moved from Åland to Finland, and landed at Kristinestad in late autumn, joining with von Döbeln's forces. , According to two 2015 studies by political scientists Jan Teorell and Bo Rothstein, Sweden's loss in the Finnish War led to reforms of the Swedish bureaucracy. The landing began on 19 June and was initially successful. Referring to the treaties of 1780 and 1800, the emperor demanded that Gustav Adolf close the Baltic Sea to all foreign warships.  In addition, Colonel Johan Bergenstråhle landed 1,100 Swedes just a few kilometers northeast of Vasa on 25 June and managed to quickly advance to the town. The Emperor of Russia, Alexander I gave Finland the status of a Grand Duchy. In the end instructions which the new Swedish commander in Finland, General Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor, received from the king were an unsuccessful and open-ended mixture of ideas from these very different plans. These were concentrated in the southern part of Finland. On 30 August, the Swedish coastal fleet defeated its Russian adversaries at the Battle of Grönvikssund, forcing the Russians to abandon their plans to invade Åland and concentrate on defense. Guardians of the North: The Finnish Army Improves Readiness and Mobility to Counter Hybrid Threats, by Dr Michael Jonsson & Dr Johan Engvall, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, a war between Sweden and Russia was fought, "Kahdenväliset suhteet Ruotsiin (Bilateral Relations to Sweden)", "Suomesta virallinen vähemmistökieli Ruotsissa (Finnish becomes an official minority language in Sweden)", "Ambassaden & konsulat (Embassies and Consulates)", "Kort men kärt möte mellan Rinne och Löfven: "Vi är gamla vänner, "Sanna Marin på sitt första statsbesök till Sverige: Tas trupper hem från Irak sker det i samarbete med andra aktörer", "Finland, Sweden Eye Non-NATO Defense Partnership", https://www.lrt.lt/en/news-in-english/19/1204335/finland-is-ready-to-defend-itself-at-war-as-against-pandemic-interview-with-finnish-ambassador-to-vilnius, https://www.talouselama.fi/uutiset/ei-valmiuslakeja-ei-valmiusvarastoja-korona-paljasti-ruotsin-ikea-syndrooman/129751b6-1b60-4978-bcb6-49c0d962d5e2, https://www.aftonbladet.se/nyheter/a/jdErVb/sverige-stangde-beredskapslagren-och-brande-miljoner-ansiktsmasker, https://www.aftonbladet.se/nyheter/a/mROd7O/finlands-president-det-ar-inte-mot-sverige, Ambassadors from Finland (current and former), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Finland–Sweden_relations&oldid=1000649884, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with style issues from September 2016, Articles needing additional references from July 2014, All articles needing additional references, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 01:53. Finland did not take part in World War I, but nationalism also had an influ… Abandoned Swedish fortifications on the Hangö Peninsula (Finnish: Hanko) were taken and manned on 21 March and on the same day the Russian army took Åbo (Finnish: Turku) while a small detachment was sent to Åland. …cede a strip of southern Finland to Russia and to become temporarily dependent on Russia.  The Åland Islands were probably settled from Sweden during the Viking period. On 14 August, Count Nikolay Kamensky decided to use this numerical superiority to launch a new offensive. Finland and Sweden equip citizens for times of crisis with training and advice. Landings were further complicated by the Swedish Navy's failure to tightly block the coastal sea route past Hangö. Some advocates existed for taking a more active approach immediately, namely Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Möller (fi) who advocated for taking an immediate offensive and Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt who supported actively delaying the advancing enemies in co-operation with the garrisons in the southern coast. Finland - Finland - Finland under Swedish rule: Birger Jarl decided that a full effort was necessary to bring Finland into the Swedish sphere; in 1249 he led an expedition to Tavastia (now Häme), an area already Christianized. About 21,000 Swedish troops were stationed in various fortresses in Finland, while the rest of his army was unable to leave southern Sweden for fear of Danish attack. After a meager Russian bombardment, Gripenberg agreed to negotiations on 10 March. The Nordic states, too, hope they would not be facing any assault alone.  Kamensky's 11,000-strong corps achieved important victories at Kuortane (1 September) and Salmi (2 September), and although Georg Carl von Döbeln won the Battle of Jutas for Sweden on 13 September, Kamensky gained the most important victory at Oravais on 14 September. The Russian advance was swift. "Capturing ‘The Gibraltar of the North:’How Swedish Sveaborg was taken by the Russians in 1808.". , In memory of the 200th anniversary of the Finnish War, all Swedish, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Chronology of battles and events of the Finnish War, 200th Anniversary of Finnish War commemorative coin, "Southern Towns Mark War of Finland Bicentennial", "Golden collector coin in honour of the anniversary: two hundred years since the Finnish war and the birth of autonomy", Norbert Götz. The Principality of Moscow conquered Novgorod, preparing the way for a unified Russia, and soon tensions arose with Sweden. While none of the fights ended with a decisive winner, the overall strategic victory went to Russia, who gained advantage in the Finnish archipelago by managing to link up their separate coastal units. For both Finland and Sweden, this provided an opportunity to participate in NATO’s working procedures as equals. According to the archaeological finds, Christianity first gained a foothold in Finland during the 11th century as well. The Second World War. It … On May 26, a British fleet carrying 14,000 troops under Sir John Moore entered the port of Gothenburg. Under Colonel Carl Johan Adlercreutz the Swedish army counter-attacked at Siikajoki and began to halt the Russian offensive. The strength of the Swedish coastal forces deployed to the Finnish archipelago was equal in size to the coastal fleet that the Russians had obtained by the Sveaborg surrender. Most of the Swedish plans assumed that warfare would be impossible during winter, disregarding the lessons from recent wars.  Prior to 1809, Sweden had a reputation as one of Europe's most corrupt countries, but the loss in the war created the perception of an existential threat in the East for Sweden and motivated Swedish elites to reform its bureaucracy. By the end of July the small forces Sweden had landed and the men that had supported them were either beaten or withdrawn back to their ships.. Altogether the Swedes had several hundred local men-in-arms. The Winter War was fought in the four months following the Soviet Union 's invasion of Finland on November 30, 1939. After the Black Death and internal power struggles in Sweden, Queen Margaret I of Denmark united the Nordic countries in the Union of Kalmar in 1397, with the approval of the Swedish nobility. The landing succeeded, and together with Swedish troops advancing from the north, they managed to drive the Russians towards Björneborg (Finnish: Pori). Instead the Russians laid siege against Sveaborg. The Swedish Volunteer Corps provided 9,640 officers and men. , Swedish efforts to harass the Russians with landings continued, with roughly 1,000 volunteers under Captain Anders Gyllenbögel landing on 1 August to support Swedish-led uprisings on the coast south of Vasa. Had the king accepted the landing of 10,000 British troops in Skåne, where the expeditionary force had been authorized to disembark, it would have enabled the Swedes to release at least 10,000 trained soldiers for the Finnish War. In 1917 Finland got independence, during World War I. Sweden recognized the independence, but required Åland Islands to become part of Sweden. Finland has an embassy in Stockholm, Consulate General in Gothenburg and 21 Consulates in Borlänge, Borås, Eskilstuna, Gävle, Haparanda, Halmstad, Karlshamn, Karlskoga, Karlstad, Landskrona, Luleå, Malmö, Norrköping, Oskarshamn, Skellefteå, Sundsvall, Trollhättan, Uppsala, Umeå, Visby and Västerås. , Having been alerted to the approach of additional Russian coastal units from Sveaborg, the Swedish forces moved to intercept them before they could link up with the Russian coastal unit now bottled up at Åbo. Today, Finland is considered one of the best neighbors Russia has. As Russian forces embarked upon their unprecedented march across the frozen gulf, King Gustav IV — accused of fatal mistakes leading to the loss of Finland — was dethroned in Stockholm on 13 March, and his uncle was proclaimed Charles XIII of Sweden. By November 1808, Russian forces had overrun all of Finland. A few months later, on 6 January 1810, the Russian government mediated the Treaty of Paris between Sweden and France. Prior to 1809, Sweden had a reputation as one of Europe's most corrupt countries, but the loss in the war created the perception of an existential threat in the East for Sweden and motivated Swedish elites to reform its bureaucracy.The motivation behind the reforms were to make the Swedish state more effective and functional, and thus protect against the exi… With this objective in mind, Kamensky suggested a daring plan, whereby the Russian army was to cross the frozen Gulf of Bothnia at two locations: one unit was to march from Vasa towards Umeå and the other from Åbo to the Åland Islands and thence towards the vicinity of Stockholm. The announcement on 2 September 1944 of the ceasefire and the Moscow Armistice between Finland and the USSR triggered frantic efforts by the 20th Mountain Army, which immediately started Operation Birke. Between the years of 1560 and 1658, Sweden created a Baltic empire centred on the Gulf of Finland and comprising the provinces of Karelia, Ingria, Estonia, and Livonia. Four days later, Bagration's corps of 17,000 men occupied the strategic Åland Islands, while Kulnev led a vanguard further across the frozen sea that on 19 March reached the Swedish shore within 70 km from Stockholm. The fortress-town of Viborg stood against a Russian siege. When news of Kulnev's incursion spread to the Swedish capital, the new king sent an embassy to Knorring, proposing a truce. The first was at the Battle of Rimito Kramp on 30 June, and after Russians withdrew closer to Åbo, the second was a battle at Pukkisaari on 4 July. Hostilities thus continued until May, when Shuvalov finally reached Umeå, where he was succeeded by Kamensky. Anjala League Finland and Sweden share a long history, similar legal systems, and an economic and social model. The war was then shifted to northern Sweden, while Finland was left to Russian occupation. However, since von Vegesack had been ordered to land his men at Björneborg, the king, after pursuing the matter unsuccessfully in military tribunals, condemned von Vegesack to lose his rank and title. According to a more modern historical description, Finland became integrated with the Swedish realm mainly due to trade and settlements via the Åland Islands and the crusades had no decisive significance. Sweden did not become actively involved in the conflict, but did indirectly support Finland. Large amounts of materiel were evacuated from southern Finland and harsh punishments were set for any hindering of the withdrawal. Sprengtporten suggested going on to an offensive during the winter since Finland would be mostly isolated when seas were frozen. On 13 March 1940 Finland sues for peace, yielding 11% of its pre-war territory & 30% of its economic assets to the USSR. During the Great Northern War, Russians occupied Finland for eight years (1713–21), and, under the Peace of Uusikaupunki (Nystad) in 1721, Sweden had to cede the southeastern part of Finland with Viipuri as well as the Baltic provinces. After the sea would be clear of ice there would be nothing to prevent Swedish forces from landing troops on the shore. Finland was an agrarian country in the 1800s, despite poor climatic conditions for efficient grain growing. Sufficient stocks of supplies had not been prepared for the Swedish army, since King Gustaf IV Adolf thought it might be taken as provocative by the Russians. Accessibility help Skip to navigation Skip to content Skip to footer. Russian ships continued to arrive from the east but remained within the shallow narrows where the Swedish ships of the line could not reach. During World War I, Sweden declared neutrality. Finland was sometimes involved in these struggles, but in general the 15th century seems to have been a relatively prosperous time, characterized by population growth and economic development. It gained complete independence in 1917. Although Knorring was urged to execute the plan as quickly as possible, he regarded the idea as unrealistic and procrastinated until March, when the emperor dispatched the War Minister Arakcheyev to Finland in order to pressure Knorring into action before joining the army himself. Almost all Finnish soldiers in Sweden (most of them in the Umeå area) were repatriated after the war. Swedish came to be the language of the high-status people in many other parts of Finland as well. In 1939, two Finnish brothers are conscripted in the army to fight in the war between Finland and the Soviet Union. During World War II Sweden declared its neutrality, but in the Winter war it declared itself non-belligerent and supported Finland's cause to a limited extent. They met the Russians first at Tallholmen on 21 July and again on 2 August in the Battle of Sandöström. Meanwhile, the other Russian contingent — 5,000 men under Barclay de Tolly — endured great hardship in crossing the frozen gulf further north; they entered Umeå on 24 March. These raids caused much confusion, and Russian responses to them thinned their strength along the coast. In September 1944, Finland relocated elements of its signals intelligence capabilities to Sweden as part of the Stella Polaris operation, allowing Sweden access to intercepted Soviet communications in exchange for security in the event of a renewed Soviet invasion of Finland. In August, Charles XIII, anxious to improve his position at a peace settlement, ordered General Gustav Wachtmeister to land in the north of Sweden and to attack Kamensky's rear. In 1495–1497, a war between Sweden and Russia was fought. Swedish attempts to land troops and artillery in support of the gunboats at Vestankärr on 2 August ended in failure, though the attempt came very close to capturing General Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden. Swedish attempts to land more troops near Turku were stalled by Lieutenant-General Pyotr Bagration's prompt actions.  Sweden has an embassy in Helsinki, Consulate General in Mariehamn, and 17 Consulates in Joensuu, Jyväskylä, Kokkola, Kotka, Kuopio, Lahti, Lappeenranta, Mikkeli, Oulu, Jakobstad, Pori, Raseborg, Rovaniemi, Tampere, Tornio, Turku and Vaasa.. Relationships are maintained at the highest political level on a regular basis, and interactions between public authorities and civil society are very strong. He was to lead a force of 2,600 men, land somewhere between Nystad (Finnish: Uusikaupunki) and Åbo, and then capture the latter. Leaving the Baltic sea to all foreign warships was an agrarian country in the battle of Sandöström advice. 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